• 作者:信息发布人
  • 发表时间:2018-04-19 18:16
  • 来源:未知
1.Principle of Melt-Blow一.熔喷原理
The raw material used in melt-blow equipment production is slicing, which is generally polypropylene and polyester, as well as polyamide, polyetherketone ketone etc. However, they adopt the same principle, which is that polymerized substance is squeezed through spinneret orifice in melting state, and becomes microfiber after the impact of high-speed hot air.
2.Equipment Structur二.设备结构
      1).Air Compressor and circulating Water System
The operating principle of air compressor: electric motor directly drives crank axle through coupling, and leads connecting rod, crosshead and piston rod, enabling piston to conduct advance and return movement in the cylinder stator of compressor, in order to complete inflow, compression, discharge and other processes.
Composition: compressor host machine, cooling system, regulating system, lubrication system, safety valve, gas tank, electric motor and its controlled equipment composition.
Effect of circulating water system: used to provide chilled water for air compressor and extruder.
     2).Extruder.  2).挤出机
Operating principle: material enters into the flight channel of screw from charge door. As the rotation of screw pushes the slicing forwards, making the slicing constantly absorb heat energy provided by heating installation. On the other hand, due to the shearing action between slicing and slicing, slicing and screw, sleeve frictions, and liquid layers, part of mechanical energy is converted to heat energy. During the ongoing process, slicing is gradually melted as melt mass as the temperature goes higher and higher. During the melting process, polymerized substance takes changes in temperature, pressure, viscosity and form, etc. It transforms from solid state (vitreous state) to elastomeric state. With the higher temperature, it appears plastic flowage, and becomes viscous flow state. The polymerized substance of viscous flow state is transmitted to melt mass pipes with certain pressure through screw’s propulsion and screw exit’s resistance.
Effect of screw extruder: squeeze, exhaust, melting and mixed homogenization of solid high polymer are conducted under constant temperature and pressure to quantitatively output high polymer melt mass.
Advantages of screw extruder: ① fast in melting. ② intense mechanical shearing. ③continuous renewal of heat exchange surfaces, more suitable for material with high viscosity. ④convenient output adjustment.
Composition of screw extruder: ① melting extrusion device: Screw, sleeve. ② heating and cooling system: Cast-aluminum sleeve heater and water cooling jacket. ③ drive system: Variable speed electric motor and variable speed gearbox.
3) Quick coupling device: it is the equipment used to filtrate the melted polymerized substance, which internal has a round groove to put filtering net. The filtering net should be changed promptly (depending on extruder pressure)
4) Spinning trunk: the effect of spinning trunk is to promote the chain breakage of polymerized substance melting. Also material has the same flow path and heat energy absorption in the spinning trunk. Finally, die head is squeezed by metering pump in constant quantification. In the whole spinning trunk, metering pump is one of the important compositions.
4)纺丝箱:纺丝箱的作用 是促进聚合物熔融断链,而且物料在纺丝箱中的流动路程相等吸收热能相等。最后被计量泵连续定量挤出模头。在整个纺丝箱中计量泵是重要的组成之一
Metering pump: the high-precision building-block used in chemical fiber production
Effect: accurately measure, continuously convey melt mass of fibering high polymer, and produce the preset pressure to maintain the spinning melt mass overcome the resistance of spinning components or spinning jet.
5) Spinning jet: the internal has two parts of air channel and material channel (spinneret orifice). The top and bottom of material channel both have air channels, and there is a 60° angel between air channel and material channel, making the two airflow collide and form turbulence, impelling the melting polymerized substance squeezed by material channel to become fibre.
6) Receiving device: a pair of electric motors separately drive optical axle and threaded shaft, reaching the purpose of mandrel stripping by the speed difference between optical axle and threaded shaft.
7) Automatic cutting device: controlled by time and air pressure. Gas-tightness should be checked before utilization, and debugged to a normal state.
3.Operation Steps三.操作步骤
Inspect whether the circulating water system and air compression plant is normal
I) .  open the switches of initial treatment and after-treatment
1.Quick change: 200℃-220℃ for about 4 hours (depending on machine downtime)
1.快换:200℃-220℃ 4小时左右(视停机时间)
2.spinning box:270℃±10℃ for about 6 hours (depending on machine downtime)
2.纺丝箱:270℃±10℃ 6小时左右(视停机时间)
3. Preparation:
       A. Axle: Whether there is electricity, and the mechanical failure of axle, and speed detector is in normal state.
       B. Whether the prepared support and pressing roll is in normal state
       C. Inspect hot air channel
4. the temperature in spinning box rises to stages 1-5 temperatures
Ⅱ: 240℃±10℃
Ⅲ: 260℃±10℃
Ⅴ: 1#:290℃±10℃
Warming in stagesⅠ-Ⅴ requires about 0.5 hour
5. Firstly use heating nozzle of heating ring 10’-15’ to wait for the melting of materials. Meanwhile, use stick metering pump to determine the degree of material melting. After material melting, open the metering pump from low speed to high speed with 400 rotation/minute. Remove quick change strainer filter, and open extruder to start discharging. Discharging is clean, transparent, pure white with no black slag. Add quick change strainer filter, stop extruder, metering pump, and stages 1-5 temperatures, and add spinning jet, open air compressor, blow air channel (add water first, and then open water pump to a hydraulic pressure of 0.15. The hydraulic pressure will be got after opening water pump) firstly open water intake switch, and then the water output switch. Inspect oil pressure.
6.Add spinning jet, and rack to make level. Apply supramoly. Make the nozzle correct and tight. Add heating rod, plug thermocouple, open air of 0.05-0.07Mpa, open spinning jet temperature, and increase the temperature of heating tank to 220℃-250℃. Then the temperature reaches to stages 1-5 temperature, and heat axle.
6.上喷头,上架子找平,涂二硫化钼,料嘴上正上紧,上加热棒,插热电偶,开气0.05-0.07Mpa,开喷头温度,同时升加热罐温度, 220℃-250℃,温度到后开1-5段温度,同时加热轴。
7. Open metering pump from low speed to high speed of 600±50. Open extruder with the pressure of 2.0-2.2. Adjust the height of axle and spinning jet in order to make them parallel.
8. Open receiving axle, optical axle and threaded shaft from low speed to high speed of 100-120 rotation/minute. Gradually initiate to adjust speed difference until the outer diameter is proper. Through the fine adjustment of pressing roll, temperature, air pressure, and distance, appearance and accuracy can reach the standard. After normal production, install automatic cutting device.
4.Equipment Principle
The extruder is composed of feeding section, compression section and metering section. In order to prevent material’s inverse flow, the stage 1 temperature is basically in melting temperature. The temperatures in the three parts gradually increase to make the polymerized substance constantly heated, and transform from vitreous state to viscous flow state in flight channel. When being squeezed into spinning box by screw, the effect of spinning box is still to promote the polymerized substance’s melting chain breakage. Also, the material has same flow path and heat energy absorption in spinning box. Finally, the die head, which is squeezed by metering pump in constant quantification, is formed into fibre through blowing and stretching of high-speed hot air.
    5.Training Program五.培训计划
The ultimate objective of technological requirements is to produce normally and maintain fibre diameter. The normal state depends on the temperatures in each part of extruder and the spinning box. Therefore, the physical and chemical properties of raw materials should be well understood. There are several methods to control fibre diameter, but the best way is to control with hot-air pressure. For example, change 10μm into 1μm and increase air pressure. However, when there is insufficient air pressure, the hot-air temperature or die head temperature should be increased. Sometimes, the temperature of spinning should also be increased. The higher the temperature is, the thinner the fibre diameter is. The larger the air pressure is, the thinner the fibre diameter is. Each raw material has its decomposition temperature, therefore, the temperature cannot be increased indefinitely. Also, the temperature of extruder and spinning box should be adjusted by the variations of environment temperature.
Inspect the equipment state and product quality at any time. When there is problem, it should be settled in time. The spinning jet should be changed promptly, and regular inspection is required on the actual temperatures of extruder and spinning box. When the rotation speed difference of two electric motor of receivers increases 9-10, the product diameter should decrease 1mm. Every decrease of 9-10 rotation speed difference requires increasing 1mm in product diameter.
      6. Points for Attention六.工作须知
      1).Clarify production purpose明确生产目的
That is what specification of products will produce. Inspect whether the specification of products on production line require adjustment at any time.
2).Workers should notice problems in time and make correct treatment on simple problems.
    2) 工人在工作过程中必须要做到能及时发现问题,并能对简单的问题进行正确的处理。
A flying yarnA飘丝
B bump B起包
Cno operationC    C不走
Complex problems should put forward promptly and resolved as soon as possible.
 3).Basically distinguish whether the product meets the standard
7.Treatment Process of Off-Test Product during Production (maintaining fibre diameter)
      1).  Flying yarn: first flying yarn of spinning jet is easy to make the filter element fail to conductnormal decoring, stratification, out of roundness, building, bump, fibre breakage, No operation, loosing core.
The product appearance of flying yarn of second spinning jet will be uneven flying yarn, uneven product appearance, lousiness, stratification, loosing core, softening, out of roundness, coarse fibre, and roughness.
The treatment methods of above phenomenon: firstly, adjust the height of axle center consistent with spinning jet. Secondly, shelter the upper part if the fibre flies downwards, and shelter the lower part if the fibre flies upwards (do not use paper to shelter fire). If there occurs occasional flying yarn, it should pay attention to the air flow condition in workshop. 述现象处理方法:首先把轴中心高低与喷头调一致,其次是丝往下飘用铁板挡上面,丝往上飘,用铁板挡下面,(切不可用纸片挡防火)、如果偶然性飘丝时注意车间空气流动情况。
If the direction of flying yarn is indeterminate, make the direction of flying yarn same as the direction of axle rotation. 上下飘丝不定时,让飘丝方向略跟轴转动方向一致。
2) Building: if building occurs accidently in normal state, first check the fixing screw on receiving axle, screw nut, synchronous pulley, looseness of synchronous belt, abrasion, and if there is no problem in the above parts, then exclude flying yarn or feed less in optical axle.
3) Reducer: Exclude fault in receiving axle and decoring. It can be solved by feeding more in optical axle. 3)大小头:排除接收轴故障和刚出芯,基本上是芯多吃光轴就可以。
 4)Sheath: Do not add many objects in pressing roll. Put the objects near the back with relatively large air. If the outermost spinning jet discharge a large amount, then lower the metering pump.
5) Black spot: discharge all material of core5)黑点:芯本身带出的把料排干净
If there is abrasion on the bearing of receiving axle, and water too much, it should exchange bearing and water less.If there is belt abrasion in the core, make clear the origin of the black spot, and make it clean.
6) Loosing core: flying yarn, soft fibre or interlayer between two spinning jets. The pump height of first metering pump is adopted to use the pressing roll to press flying yarn and soft fibre.
6)抽芯:两喷头之间飘丝, 起软毛或夹层,第一计量泵泵高用压辊压住飘丝和软毛。
7) Filament breakage: first spinning jetlowers metering pump, and decrease temperature on axle
The first spinning jetis blocked, and change spinning jet.
8)No operation: Deal with the flying yarn of first spinning jet   8)不走:第一喷头飘丝处理好飘丝
There will be large resistance if the optical axle feeds a large amount. The core should feed lessoptical axle.光轴吃的多,阻力大,芯适量少吃光轴
Heavy pressure on pressing roll. Alleviate the gram weight of pressing roll.
Large resistance of cutting filter element and roulette. Reduce the resistance ofdecoring
Problems in receiving axle. Overhaul and change receiving axle
Technical problem or initially starting up. Adjust technical parameter.
9) Lousiness in the core: raw material; change raw material or product; adjust technology
Overhaul the fibre between optical axle and threaded shaft. 9)芯起毛:原料本身,更换料或改产品,调工艺
Low axle temperature. Feed more optical axle轴温度低,多吃一点光轴
Small amount of discharging material when first spinning jet is blocked, and soft fibre in the inner hole of core. 第一喷头处堵塞出料少芯内孔起软毛
10) Add output: set distance, add metering pump, increase temperature of spinningbox (≦300°)
11) Add or decrease gram weight: if the gram weight is heavy, if the spinning jet has no problem,change the distance outbound; vice versa.
12) Stratification: flying yarnblocks flying yarn;Soft fibre blocks spinning jet, and use pressing roll to keepdown and maintain it meet the standard. Others should change spinning jet.
13) Unstable gram weight: uneven material mixture, and filter resistance, change filter; unstable extruderrotational speed, conduct inspection.
14)Adjust the external diameter of φ20 small core43±1 (φ20*φ43±1*): the external diameter of firstspinning jetis controlled as 33±1mm in usual production. It the external diameter cannot be reduced, and is easy to be twisted off, maintain the reading of optical axle and threaded shaft, and reduce 1-2 circles to the inner side. Lighten the gram weight of pressing roll. The heights of core, stand, and pressing roll keep in one life to reduce resistance as much as possible.
14)调φ20小芯外径43±1(φ20*φ43±1*  ):第一喷头外径平时生产控制在33±1mm外径调不小易扭断时,光轴和螺纹轴读数不变的情况下往里打1-2圈,减轻压辊重量,芯、支架、压辊高度一致在一条线上,尽量减少阻力。
15) Turn upfat core (φ28*φ114±2*   ) or (φ38*φ114±2*   ): adjust the external diameter of first spinning jetcore to 78-80. When it can be open normally, open second spinning jet. The speed difference of optical axle and threaded shaftis 10-12. The wheel base of first spinning jetis 170±mm, and that of metering pump should be ≦700.
15)调大胖芯(φ28*φ114±2*   )或(φ38*φ114±2*   ):先开第一喷头芯外径调到78-80能正常后再开第二喷头,光轴和螺纹轴速差10-12,第一喷头轴距在170±mm,计量泵不能≦700
16) Adjust thin fibre to thick fibre: first lower spinning jet temperature. When the spinning jet temperatureis normal, turn off the air (single side) ;When the temperatures on both sides of spinning jet is normal, lower material channel temperature, and turn off the air (both sides)
17) Adjust thick fibre to thin fibre: first increase spinning jet temperature. When the spinning jet temperature is normal, turn on the air (single side): When the temperatures of spinning jet is normal,increase material channel andtemperature, and turn on the air (both sides)
18) Out of roundness: flying yarn; adjust the height of wagon; treat the flying yarn with iron plate.
8. Reference Standard (Pilot) and Rule of Nonwoven Products
I.Production Requirement:  (According to requirements of task order)
1).Fibre diameter: according to gram weight.
2).Gram weight: On clients’ request.
3).Accuracy of scale: 0.5-100μm.
4).Diameter:error limits range±1.0mm (refers to effective area,excluding cut part)
  5).Appearance: white and pure color, no stain, smooth surface, no heliciform, no scrap.
  6).Packing Requirement:
1). Use waterless and clean compressed air to blow and purify the internal and external filter elementproducts to maintain that there is no scrap or flying fibre.
2). The internal and external surfaces of products should be no stains which is >5.0mm, or bump which is >2.0mm.  (on clients’ request)
3). The finished product after purification is packed with clean wrapping paper and bag- type heat- shrinkable film. Enchase and sign according to requirements of task order.
4). No pollutions on finished products during purification and package processes.
5) . After package, use adhesive tapes to seal the top and bottom of the box, and sign the date.
6) . Label on boxes. Labels are filled according to requirements and signed with individual names.
II.Inspection Requirements:
1. It requires regular shift inspection. Inspectors should be notified when there is special conditions on production line to make additional inspection.
   1. 检测要求跟班检验,当生产线上出现特殊情况时及时通知检验员追加检测。
2. During shift change, director of production line and inspectors should make additional inspections on appearance of preform body of filter element. Clear accounts and signature should be made on their original records.
III.Reference Standard:
1. Length dimension: according to the customer request, the length of each batch’s products should be consistent with error limits range of ±1.0mm.
1. 长度尺寸:根据客户要求每一批产品的长度应保持一致,误差范围±1.0mm。
2. Two ends surface must be parallel with a range of <0.5mm.
2. 两端面必须保持平行,其平行度<0.5mm。
3.Error of two ends’ diameter dimension is≤0.5mm.
4. Tolerance of gradient: the largest gradient on both sides of each product should be less than 1mm.
4. 钭度公差:每根产品其两头最大钭度不得大于1mm。
5. Cuts on both sides should be even, smooth, and have no bump, or damages on mouths of internal or external diameter
6.Appearance: 6.外观:
A: when product length is ≥750mm, inspection requirements are the same as those of production.
B: when product length is <750mm
. White and clean color, no finger print, no stains on product.  
①    色泽洁白干净,无手印,产品不允许有污点。 
‚. Smooth surface, no heliciform, no bumps >2.0mm (on client’s requests).
②    表面光滑,无螺旋状,无>2.0mm的凹凸包(可视客户要求而定)。
ƒDo not allow exceeding requirements during production process.Stains or non-compliant
products are transferred to the next order after cutting.
③      坚决杜绝在生产过程中出现超包(超过要求)、污点或不符合规定的产品被裁切后转入下一工序。
④      Do not allow transferring polluted products to next order during cutting.
IVInspection Rules:
Adopt the combination of first inspection by inspection department and self-inspection by production department.
1. First inspection: select billet of two filter elements randomly to cut into products, and make inspection
1. 首检:任意抽2根滤芯坏料裁切成产品由检验
Inspections are conducted according to the above requirements. After inspection, mark qualification label. Batch cutting is made with finished products in first inspection as example.Production department keeps examples of first inspection, and finished cutting products are transferred to next order.
 2.Self-inspection: staff in production department conduct processing and inspection strictly according to the above requirements during cutting process.
3.Inspectors are responsible for all outgoing product and inspections of all products.
Note: on clients’ requests:
①             When delivering production task order, mark out scale accuracy, internal and external fibre diameters, and gram weight.
②             Compounding ratio of supplement in filter element should be clear.